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Bandhavgarh National Park

-  An Introduction:

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Introduction

The reserve named after the highest hill Bandhavgarh (807 m) in the centre
 of it, falls between the Vindhyan hill range and the eastern flank of Satpura hill range and is located in Shahdol and Jabalpur districts of Madhya Pradesh.

A chain of smaller hills, 32 in all, surrounds this hill, forming a number of valleys and spurs interspersed with low lying areas, such as Chakradhara, Rajbahera, Sehra-Dadra, Bhitri bah, Kolua bah etc. Since the main formation is of sandstone, water percolates through it forming a number of perennial streams and springs. The hills are mainly flat topped. The meadows in certain areas are marshy.

The Sal & bamboo covers plain tract and degenerates in growth and quality as it ascends the hill slopes, further giving place to mixed forest on upper slopes, mainly due to edaphic factors.

Few rare species like insectivorous plants Drocera peltata and medicinal plant like Buch (Acorus calamus) are found in some isolated patches of Tala ranges of the Reserve.

Rivers Johilla and Son flowing on the boundary on the eastern side, river Umrar passing through western fringes and the Bandhavgarh hill, which is visible from as far as 30 km, are some of the landmarks of the Reserve.

 

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Conservation History
     

The Bandhavgarh Fort, in the centre of the Reserve, atop the Bandhavgarh hill, was the seat of rulers of Rewa State, until they shifted to Rewa town in 1617 A.D. After independence and abolition of the princely States, the process of degradation of forests started due to relaxed control. Maharaja Martand Singh of Rewa, was deeply moved by the destruction of forests. On his proposal an area of 105 sq. km. was declared as National Park in 1965. The area of the park was increased to 448.84 sq. km. in 1982.

Bandhavgarh has been an excellent habitat of tiger and is known for the highest density of tigers in the world. Considering the importance and potentiality of the National park, it was included in the Project Tiger Network in 1993. The adjoining Panpatha Sanctuary too was declared as a part of the Reserve.

The area of 105 sq. km. of old National Park was finally notified in 1968. The remaining part of the National Park i.e. 343.842 sq. km. is yet to be finally declared though State Government had made the initial notification in 1982. Panpatha Sanctuary with an area of 245.847 sq. km. was declared in 1983.

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Animal
Bandhavgarh National park
Panpatha Sanctuary
Total Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve
 
Tiger
  46
  6
  52
Leopard
  27
   
  36
Sambar
 
  753
  59
  812
Barking deer
  151
  49
  200
Nilgai
  518
  153
  671
Gaur
  1
  0
  1
Chausingha
  19
  0
  19
Wild boar
  1414
  447
  1861
Wild dog
  3
  6
  9
Chinkara
  110
  73
  183

 

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Archeology

Mythologically the fort was built by Lord Rama for his brother Laxman, during Ramayan period. There are a number of man made caves (35) in Bandhavgarh with inscriptions and carvings, which date back between about 129-168 A.D. Statues of various incarnations of Lord Vishnu, which were carved out of single rocks are found in the fort. "Sheshshaiya" the statue of lord Vishnu in reclining pose is the biggest of all and attracts every tourist. These statues date back to 10-11th Century A.D.


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Forest Types 

Major Flora

Sal, Saja, Dhauda, Tendu, Arjun, Aonla, Pals, Salai, Bhirra, Khamer, Dhaman, Mango, Jamun, Bamboo, etc.

Major Fauna

Main Species

Mammals:

Spotted deer or Chital, Sambar, Barking deer or Muntjac, Chausinga or Four-horned antilope, Nilgai or Blue bull, Indian Gazel or chinkara and Tiger, Leopard, wild dog or Dhole, Wolf, Scavangers consists of Hyena, jackal, Wild boar, Sloth bear, Common Langur, Rhesus monkey etc.

Bird:

242 species of birds have been identified in the Reserve. Commonly seen are Peafowl, Red Jungle fowl, Grey Hornbill, Common Teals, Red Wattled Lapwing, Crested Serpent Eagle, White Breasted Kingfisher, Lesser Adjutant Stork, etc.

Reptile: Cobras, Kraits, Vipers and Python

Fauna listed in the Schedules of WPA, 1972

Tiger (Panthera tigris), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Wolf (Canis lupus), Jackal (Canis aureus), Indian Fox (Vulpes bengalensis), Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus), Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus), Ratel (Mellivora capensis), Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena), Chinkara (Gazella gazella) and Chowsingha (Tetraceros quadicornis). Amongst birds are Malabar Pied Hornbill and amongst reptiles Indian Varanus (Varanus bengalensis) and Python (Python morulus).



 

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